The Subcommittee discussed the results of Section 4, Pertinent Data, and Section 5, Evaluation of Alternatives, and determined that Alternative 2 was the best alternative. Alternative 2 showed compliance with federal and local programs, and commitment to
keep the Bay clean. Therefore, the recommendations by the Subcommittee, the PWC, and the City Manager are:
1) to rescind the opt out process within the next six months;
2} to invest in the development of street sweeping machines that do not require moving parked cars, parking enforcement, or meeting the current street sweeper use constrictions due to street curvature, crown, or width;
3} to implement a program that educates the need for street sweeping, and If necessary, work with the opt out blocks to find mutually agreeable solutions;
4} to direct resources for the staffing and equipment associated with Alternative 2 to fully implement the SSP and expanded Leaf Removal Program; and
5} to delegate to the PWC for recommendation if the City Council wishes. further review on parking enforcement and street signage associated with the SSP.
As indicated In Section 4, the removed copper quantities from the City's SSP with the opt out process and the storm drain Inlet cleaning program exceed the RWQCB projected copper removal objective for the City. The existing programs remove 569 lb of copper annually whlle the RWQCB target for Berkeley is about 157 lb annually.
However, wet weather water quality sampling conducted in Codornices Creek from December 1990 through February 1991 showed higher copper concentrations than the objectives listed in the California Inland Surface Waters Plan by the State Water Resource Control Board, 1991. In other words, the removed copper quantities from street sweeping samples Indicate meeting the RWQCB target, but the sampling indicate copper exceedances of the water quality objectives. Thus, it is in Berkeley's best interest to do more to meet
The opt out process was developed because residents felt it was no longer necessary for the health and safety of their neighborhood. Residents would assume cleaning and sweeping responsibilities of their own blocks and inspections would be made regularly by City staff to ensure cleanliness. The reality is that inspections are not performed due to underbudgeted resources.
Under the federally mandated Clean Water Program, the City is committed to Improve our existing street sweeping program to control urban runoff pollution. Given the above noted sampling data, Berkeley should not only implement the Residential Street Sweeping Program (SSP) without the opt out process but also include all other streets currently not in the SSP.
Other Considerations for Rescinding
Although the City Council directed the City Manager and the PWC to report on scientific findings regarding the relationship between the SSP with opt out and the extent to which the City is reducing copper into the Bay, this Subcommittee also evaluated the ramifications of the SSP with opt out on other interconnected programs and objectives. These factors are:
1) compliance with the federal Clean Water Program;
2) the Berkeley Clean City Program;
3) fostering of environmental stewardship in Berkeley residents;
4) responsibility of automobile ownership; and 5) cost.
Federal Clean Water Program
The USEPA and RWQCB will be using a "watershed" approach to achieve reductions of
runoff pollutants which means a regional responsibility that will transcend municipal
boundaries. Berkeley must ensure its share of pollutant removal so that together with the
neighboring municipalities, we ensure compliance with the federal mandate.
Clean City Program
A clean, healthy street and general city environment is essential if the City is to be a
desirable place to live and to attract business and commerce. The City adopted the Clean
City Program several years ago to promote such an environment. Street sweeping, steam
cleaning of sidewalks in dense commercial areas, placement of adequate numbers of trash
containers, frequent collection of trash, curbside residential trash pickup, curbside
commercial recycling pickup, and requesting property owners to keep their sidewalks trash
free are some of the elements of this program. In this context, we believe the street
sweeping program should not only be continued, but every effort should be made to make
it comprehensive and city-wide.
Bay area residents are fortunate to have the abundant access to nearby parks and
waterbodies for hiking, fishing, boating, swimming, and other recreational uses; and the
responsibility to make these resources available for the next generation of users should be
fostered. This entails long term goals and planning. The quality of liveability in the Bay
area doesn't come automatically. Efforts to foster environmental stewardship such as the
SSP should be used.
Pollution from Automobile Usage
One fact that has remained constant throughout this study is that automobiles are the main
source of urban pollutants. This has been verified in studies from both Santa Clara and
Alameda counties. City-wide street sweeping is the most effective way we know to
remove pollution from automobile use. The City Council's directive was to focus on copper
removal, but copper is only one pollutant associated from automobile usage.
the other hand, if the opt out process is eliminated, at least I FTE and one additional mechanical
sweeper are needed. Since it will cost significantly whether to keep or not to keep ' the opt out
process, we believe that Berkeley should choose a course (Alternative 2) that results in the
While not exactly applicable to our situation, one European country has developed a street
sweeping machine to operate in very crowded and narrow streets. The Subcommittee
recommends that the City explore, and if necessary, promote the development of a street
sweeping machine that can effectively sweep streets with parked cars present. The defense
industry is actively seeking non-defense applications of research and development. We are also
blessed with the proximity of UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and many intelligent
minds. Since the current City activities to abate surface pollution are adequate to meet the
proposed RWQCB requirement, we believe that the City is still within the proper timeframe to
find solutions which are satisfactory to the City and its citizens to further improve our urban
We recommend that information materials on the need for street sweeping be developed and
distributed to the opt out blocks. If necessary, we also recommend block level discussions be
organized by the City Council, PWC, and Public Works Dept. Approximately 6% (81 blocks)
have opted out which makes education on a block level manageable. The majority of these opt
out blocks are north of Virginia Street, east of Sacramento Avenue, and west of Martin Luther
King Jr Way and Arlington Avenue
These block level discussions should be held to reach a mutually agreeable solution on issues
such as parking enforcement and alternative signage. Our investigation showed that moving
parked cars, ticketing parked cars, and street signs are the three oft expressed oppositions to the
SSP. The records for public hearings held by the PWC on the opt out process indicate no
opposition to street sweeping. Residents wanted street sweeping but without moving parked cars
or erecting additional street signs.
Additional staffing and equipment resources to fully implement the SSP and the expanded Leaf
Removal Program is another recommendation. Current resources are under budgeted which does
not enable a full, proactive implementation of the programs. An analysis of routes and operation
time along with better coordination with the parking enforcement staff may improve schedules.
Parking enforcement staff is not always available and their absence means no ticketing and
marginal benefits of sweeping. Another benefit of the analysis is to schedule resources more
effectively and regularly for leaf removal. One source of funding for these needs could be from
the parking enforcement revenue associated with street sweeping.
LIST OF RESOURCES
ACURCWP. FY 93/94 Municipal Government Maintenance Best Management Practices. June 1994.
ACURCWP. Draft Street Sweeping Literature Review/ Storm Inlet Modifications. June 23, 1994.
ACURCWP. Storm Inlet Pilot Study. March 16, 1994.
ACURCWP. Clean Streets in Alameda County Pave the Way to Clean Water in the San Francisco Bay, press release. November 1993.
ACURCWP. Loads Assessment Summary Report. Submitted by Woodward-Clyde
Consultants and Kinnetic Laboratories Inc. October 31, 1991.
ACURCWP. A Storm Water Management Plan for the Alameda County Urban Runoff
Clean Water Program. June 28, 1991.
RWQCB, San Francisco Bay Region. ACURCWP Annual Report Review. 1992-1993 Annual
Report. June 25, 1994.
RWQCB, San Francisco Bay Region, Planning Unit, Jessica Lacy. Wasteload Allocation for
Copper for San Francisco Bay. June 1, 1993
Schwartz Industries. American Sweeper Magazine. Volume 3 Number 3 1994. Volume 3
Number 1 1994. Volume 3 Number 2 1994. Volume 2 Number 2 1993.
SCVNSP. Source Identification and Control Report. December I, 1992.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ACURCWP Alameda County Urban Runoff Clean Water Program
City City of Berkeley
CWP Clean (Storm) Water Program
CY cubic yard
NURP National Urban Runoff Program
RWQCB San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board
SCVNSP Santa Clara Valley Nonpoint Source (Pollution Control) Program
SSP Street Sweeping Program
SWMP Storm Water Management Plan
SWPPP Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
SWRCB State Water Resources Control Board
USEPA US Environmental Protection Agency
NURP National Urban Runoff Program